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quarta-feira, 8 de maio de 2019

Scientific Methods

Scientific methods are methods adopted to probatively take for truth or untruth an event. According to Lehfeld, "The method is not unique and not always the same for the study of this or that object and / or for this or that framework of science, since it reflects the historical conditions of the moment when knowledge is constructed. Only on the basis of this reflection will the researcher be able to understand the historical and dynamic plan of scientific knowledge. " In this aspect, we note the relevance of the time and the non-dogmatism of the method, since it has a strong influence of the daily life and of factors that affect it. In the formality of the word, method is:
 1. procedure, technique, or means of doing something.
 2. organized, logical and systematic process of research, education, research, presentation, etc.

Based on the assertions, the scientific method is the method adopted to seek proof, to seek truth, and to demonstrate infallibly that that-object of study-is true. To this day the theory of relativity - adopted by true - is tested in extreme conditions of the universe, in astronomical observations and quantum events. It is adopted for true because it did not fail. Only once, that is, a single failure, in which to prove that relativity somehow did not work will make the whole theory fall to the ground and be adopted as false. The scientific method consists of the following steps:
 - Observation of a fact or event;
 - Formulation of a problem;
 - Proposal of a hypothesis;
 - Conduct research and tests to validate the hypothesis.

 Among the methods classified as scientific, we will address some:

 Inductive method

 Proposed by the empiricists Hobbes, Hume, Locke, and Bacon, the inductive method is one that starts from observations of particular facts to general conclusions. It is a method that does not take into account established principles. In this method, correlations between the events are sought for conclusions starting from true premises, but that can lead to a false closure, therefore, must be realized with enough observation and coherence. Let's see:
 - Luiz takes juice;
 - Felipe takes juice;
 - Robson drinks juice;
 "Luiz, Felipe and Robson are men;
 "Soon, men drink juice.

 A test widely used for conclusions in the inductive method and performed with great discretion is chi-square (chi-square). Similar to Models LS or LS Models.

 Deductive method

 Unlike the inductive method, the deductive method starts from the observation of general principles to arrive at particular conclusions. It is the method proposed by René Descartes - which I suggest reading the book "The discourse of method" - and also by other dedutivists, such as Spinoza. - All plants perform photosynthesis; - Fungi do not carry out photosynthesis; "Soon, fungi are not plants.

                                                  René Descartes. 1596 - 1650

Dialectical method

 Used not only in the field of exact sciences, the dialectical method is also widely used in philosophical questions, where one tries to challenge a proposed reality, emphasizing everything that opposes it. For every thesis, there is an anti-thesis - or antithesis - and, when counterposed, forms a synthesis. Cited by Santos (2011), "treats the conciliation of opposites in things and in spirit".

Phenomenological method 

 The latter, above all, values ​​the interpretation of the world, which arises from the consciousness of man. It is not a positivist approach, since the researcher ceases to be in the neutrality of a neutral observer and places himself as a participant, an actor of that event. It is a method that is disputed by many authors, mainly because of the non-partial approach.

 Historical method 

 Specific of social sciences, aims to investigate current effects felt until its cause, in the past. In an inverse way, Andrade (2003) states that "it consists of investigating the events, processes and institutions of the past to verify their influence in today's society".

 #Modelocientifico, #etapasdemetodocientifico, #metodocientifico


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